Jamun is an indigenous crop of India. Farmers do Jamun farming in a wide area. The seeds of Jamun fruit are used to prepare various drugs, which helps in curing diabetes and increasing blood sugar level. In addition, Jamun fruits have a very delicious taste and flavour. It is an evergreen with a medium height of around 30 m and grey or brown bark. Also, leaves are smooth and 4 to 6 cm wide and 10 to 15 cm long. The bearded flowers are yellow and have a 5 mm diameter. And the fruits are green which turns to crimson red at maturity. The fruits have seeds around 1 to 1.5cm long. Jamun can grow in Afghanistan, Myanmar, the Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia and India. And, the significant producers of Jamun in India are Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Assam and Rajasthan.
Methods and Requirements of Jamun Farming
You can also do Jamun Farming in India. So, let’s start with the requirements of Jamun farming.
Due to its hardy nature, you can grow it in various soils, including sodic, poor, saline, calcareous, and marshy. Also, it can survive in badly drained soils. But, the fertile, deep loamy soil having a sound drainage system is ideal for Jamun farming. It would help if you avoided its sowing in heavy and sandy soils.
There are several varieties of Jamun available for cultivation. Let’s know about some of them.
Rie Jamun – Fruits are dark violet or black-blue, containing sweet and juicy flesh. Ripe in June – July.
Badama – Contains large and incredibly juicy fruits
Kaatha – Contains small and acidic fruits
Jathi – Ripen in the month of May-June
Ashada – Ripen in the month of June-July
Bhado – Ripen in the month of August
Ra-Jamun – Contains large and juicy fruit, having purple colour and tiny seeds.
Narendra Jamun 6 – Developed by Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology
Rajendra Jamun 1 – Developed by Bihar Agricultural College
Konkan Bahadoli – Developed by Regional Fruit Research Station
Goma Priyanka – Developed by (CHES) Central Horticultural Experiment Station
CISH J-42 – Bears seedless fruits and developed by (CISH) Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
CISH J-37 – Developed by (CISH) Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture
You have to prepare the land so well for Jamun farming. First, you should apply one ploughing with the help of good tractors like the john deere e series to take the ground to a fine tilth. Then, you should dig pits and fill them with Farm Yard Manure in the ratio of 3:1. And do transplantation of seedlings in raised beds.
You can plant it in both the monsoon and spring seasons. However, February-March is the optimum time for the spring season, and July-August is the optimum time for the monsoon season. The recommended space in both ways for seedling trees must be 10m. And for the budded seedlings, it must be 8 m. Keep the sowing depth 4 to 5 cm. The methods of sowing are Direct sowing and the Grafting method.
You have to sow one seed per pit. It would help to treat the seeds with Bavistin before planting to protect them from soil-borne disease and pests. Lastly, dry the seeds and use them for the sowing.
You have to give regular irrigation at a regular interval for Jamun farming. So provide light irrigation immediately after manuring. And apply 6 to 8 irrigations for young plants and 5 to 6 for mature plants.
Harvesting is mostly done daily after the fruit grows. It done primarily by the climb pickers. The fruit, which is blackish purple, is selected for gathering. While harvesting, care should be handled to avoid any damage to fruit. Farmers choose the New Holland 3600 tractor model for better productive farming because it comes in an economical price range. Fully ripe fruits with smooth flesh used for processing and seed extraction purposes.
After harvesting, grading done. Then fruits packed in Bamboo baskets or containers or rigid boxes. To increase the shelf-life of Jamun, they kept at low temperatures. Perfect filling and quick transport done for less spoilage of fruits. From fruits, different effects like vinegar, capsules, jellies, seed powder, jams and squashes are made after processing.
Plant Jamun seeds on raised beds with suitable length and 4-5cm deep. After planting, beds are covered with a thin cloth to retain moisture. To protect crops from virus attacks, the seeds are first treated with Bavistin. Germination starts within 10-15 days from sowing.
Pits are dug before the monsoon or spring season. Holes are provided with convenient measurements, i.e. 1m x 1m x 1m. On these prepared pits transplanting is done.
Transplanting is mostly done in the next monsoon when the seedlings have 3-4 leaves. Water seedling beds 24 hours before transplanting so that seedlings can be readily uprooted and be swollen at transplanting time.
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