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SPSS Assignment Help: Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires

SPSS Assignment Help
SPSS Assignment Help

To be considered acceptable, a questionnaire must have both reliability and validity. The former examines the questionnaire’s consistency, whereas the latter measures how closely the results match reality.

A questionnaire is a list of questions used in research. These questions seek responders’ demographic, personal, factual, and attitude data. The questions allow the respondent to express their views on a topical issue. These include customer satisfaction surveys, product use surveys and business communications surveys.

The sort of data sought from the questionnaire directly influences its design. Quantitative questions evaluate previously provided hypotheses, whereas qualitative questionnaires acquire expository information.

Common Types of Questionnaire:

  • Structured Questionnaires

Quantitative data is collected using a questionnaire. This sort of questionnaire is meant to obtain targeted data. May also use it to launch formal research, augment and check previously collected data, and confirm hypotheses.

  • Unstructured Surveys

This sort of survey collects qualitative data. This questionnaire form contains a basic structure and some branching questions but no questions that limit a respondent’s replies. The questions are more open-ended here.

Top Qualities of a Good Questionnaire:

A questionnaire’s reliability and validity are critical. May assess your questionnaire reliability and truth statistically, depending on the questionnaire’s design and intent

Rate stability

This includes re-distributing the questionnaire to the same set of people. Then compare the two replies. Memory effects limit this sort of dependability test. If respondents answer questions as they did the last time, it may give the researcher an illusory sense of trustworthiness. To lessen memory effects, extend the time between the first and second tests.

Formal parallelism

The questionnaire is prepared in parallel variants (A and B). Both forms would collect the same data, but the questions would differ. Respondents must complete both forms. The correlation between the two forms estimates the questionnaire’s reliability. This checker’s flaw is its high cost.


Split-half reliability assesses how well the questions measure the same concept. The questions are divided into two halves, and the correlation of the scores on the two scales is determined. The correlation is then processed via the Spearman-Brown algorithm.

How do check the Validity of a Questionnaire?

Ensure facial validity

First, have knowledgeable individuals review your questionnaire, and they should assess if your questionnaire adequately captured the topic. Second, have a questionnaire specialist check for duplicate, ambiguous, and leading questions.

Pilot test

Pilot test sample sizes vary, and you can use a small or big sample size. Assuming 20 participants per question, a 30-item survey would require 600 responses. After the respondents fill out the form, you may identify which queries are irrelevant.

The pilot test in a sheet

Cleanse the data in a spreadsheet. Let one person read while the other enters. This reduces errors that may occur when one person reads and inputs data. Negatively rephrase questions to see if respondents replied carelessly. Positive paraphrased questions would match negative translated questions if answered questions correctly. If there is any discrepancy, the questionnaire should be discarded. Check the data sets’ lowest and maximum values. A 6-point Liker scale indicates a mistake.


Used to locate subordinate components, they inform you what factors your questions measure. Factor loadings ranged from -1.0 to 1. When grouping factor loadings, search for values of 0.60 or greater. If you are a novice, do not attempt PCA.

Interdependence of questions on the same factor

This stage evaluates consistency in replies and correlation between questions loading onto the same factor—Cronbach’s alpha (CA). CA ranges from 0 to 1. 0.60-0.70 is also acceptable. If your CA value is low, consider deleting a question.

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Rashmi Dubey Tours offers a wide range of responsible travel experiences, from cultural tours and homestays to eco-friendly safaris and adventure activities. Adotrip is a travel agency based in Delhi, India that offers a range of travel services, including tour packages, holidays packages, Honeymoon packages, Family tour packages flight and hotel bookings, and transportation arrangements. We are committed to making a positive impact on the communities we visit and to promoting sustainable tourism practices. Online Flight Ticket Booking If you are interested in finding out more about our company or if you would like to book a tour with us, please do not hesitate to contact us.

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